文章摘要
毕宝贵,李泽椿,郭安红,王月冬.自然灾害对公共安全的影响及其监测预警科技发展战略[J].海洋气象学报,2017,37(3):1-7
自然灾害对公共安全的影响及其监测预警科技发展战略
Impacts of natural disasters on public security as well as science and technology development strategies in disasters monitoring and warning
投稿时间:2017-06-30  修订日期:2017-07-28
DOI:10.19513/j.cnki.issn2096-3599.2017.03.001
中文关键词: 自然灾害  公共安全  监测预警  关键技术
英文关键词: natural disasters  public security  monitoring and early warning  key technology
基金项目:中国工程院重大咨询研究项目“国家公共安全科技发展战略研究”(2014-ZD-2)中的研究课题“自然灾害监测预警科技发展规划研究”(2014-ZD-2-2)
作者单位
毕宝贵,李泽椿,郭安红,王月冬 国家气象中心 
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中文摘要:
      改革开放以来,我国在自然灾害监测预警的各个环节均取得了可喜的发展,对减轻灾害损失、保障人民生命财产安全和社会稳定繁荣发展发挥了重要作用。但仍需清醒地认识到,在灾害规律演变、社会经济发展的新形势下,各类自然灾害对国家公共安全仍存在很大的威胁;我国目前灾害监测预警能力与国家防灾减灾“三个转变”需求以及国际先进水平相比仍存在较大差距。因此,本文简要论述了气象、海洋、地质、地震、生物五大自然灾害对国家公共安全的影响,并根据我国目前监测预警状况和存在问题,提出未来5~10 a我国自然灾害监测预警科技发展战略要从加强预测预报基础理论研究、提升综合监测能力、构建高效自然灾害预警系统以及发展减灾避灾和救灾技术四个方面着手推进。
英文摘要:
      Tremendous progresses have been made in natural disaster monitoring, forecasting and early warning since the reforming and opening of China. These developments have played an important role in reducing economic losses, guaranteeing the safety of peoples lives and property, and promoting social stability and prosperity. But it should be soberly recognized that under the new situation of natural disasters and socioeconomic development, natural disasters still pose a great threat to China's national and public safety. Compared with the international advanced level, and the needs of the “three transformations” in national disaster prevention and reduction strategy, there is still a large gap in ability of disaster monitoring and early warning. This paper briefly discusses the impacts of five kinds of natural disasters on national public security: weather, ocean, geology, earthquake and Biology. And based on the current capacity and existing problems in natural disaster monitoring and warning, the strategies of science and technology development for natural disaster monitoring and warning in the coming 5-10 years are put forward, which include: 1) strengthening theoretical researches on disaster forecasting and prediction; 2) enhancing comprehensive monitoring capability; 3) constructing disaster warning systems of more efficient; and 4) developing disaster mitigating, avoiding and relief technologies.
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