文章摘要
孙兴池.地面倒槽暴雨的形成机制研究[J].海洋气象学报,2018,38(3):39-46
地面倒槽暴雨的形成机制研究
Study on the formation mechanism of rainstorms associated with surface inverted troughs
投稿时间:2018-03-13  修订日期:2018-03-30
DOI:10.19513/j.cnki.issn2096-3599.2018.03.005
中文关键词: 地面倒槽  形成机制  暴雨落区
英文关键词: surface inverted trough  formation mechanism  rainstorm area
基金项目:山东省气象局重点科研项目(2012sdqxz04)
作者单位
孙兴池 (山东省气象台山东 济南 250031) 
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中文摘要:
      应用常规观测资料、NCEP1°×1°再分析资料,分析山东不同天气类型的暴雨过程,发现在有冷暖空气相互作用的锋面过程中,地面倒槽顶部是首要的暴雨落区。地面倒槽暴雨的形成机制为:1)地面倒槽与850 hPa水汽辐合中心相吻合。2)地面倒槽的形成是低层暖平流作用的结果,地面倒槽的东南风一侧,为低层暖平流中心,暖平流导致暖锋前负变压明显,形成地面倒槽。3)地面倒槽为冷空气和暖湿气流交汇区,在其经向剖面上,可见整个对流层具有冷锋完整的热力、动力空间结构特征。后倾槽时,锋面抬升作用导致强上升运动出现在锋后,暴雨趋向于出现在倒槽后部东北气流中。前倾槽时,强上升运动区与向上凸起的θe舌状高值区吻合,潜在不稳定能量释放产生暴雨,暴雨区位于倒槽附近。
英文摘要:
      Based on conventional observation data and NCEP 1°×1° reanalysis data, rainstorm processes of different weather types in Shandong are analyzed. It is found that rainstorm areas mainly appear at the top of surface inverted troughs on the front surface when warm and cold air interact with each other. The formation mechanism of rainstorms associated with inverted troughs is as follows. 1) The surface inverted trough is consistent with the water vapor convergence center at 850 hPa. 2) The surface inverted trough results from lower warm advection, whose center is located at the southeast wind side of the surface inverted trough. The warm advection causes obvious katallobar ahead of the warm front, which leads to the formation of the surface inverted trough. 3) The surface inverted trough lies where cold air meets warm and wet air current. On the meridional cross section, the whole troposphere is characterized by complete, thermal, and dynamic space structure as the cold front. For the backward tilting trough, the front lift results in strong ascending motion behind the front. As a result, rainstorms tend to appear in the northeast air current at the back of the trough. For the forward tilting trough, the strong ascending motion area is consistent with the tongue-like area of high θe, and the inverted trough front triggers the release of potential unstable energy, resulting in rainstorms associated with the inverted trough.
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