文章摘要
吴进1,2,马志强2,熊亚军2,乔林2,李琛3.北京地区供暖季两次重污染过程气象条件对比[J].海洋气象学报,2019,39(1):38-45
北京地区供暖季两次重污染过程气象条件对比
Comparative analysis of meteorological conditions for two heavy pollution processes during the heating season in Beijing
  
DOI:10.19513/j.cnki.issn2096-3599.2019.01.004
中文关键词: 重污染  扩散条件  PM2.5  CO  黑碳
英文关键词: heavy pollution  diffusion condition  PM2.5  CO  BC
基金项目:北京市重大科技项目(Z181100005418014)
作者单位
吴进1,2,马志强2,熊亚军2,乔林2,李琛3 (1.北京城市气象研究院北京 1000892.京津冀环境气象预报预警中心北京 1000893.北京市气象服务中心北京 100089) 
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中文摘要:
   为对比分析北京地区供暖季期间两次重污染过程的影响因素,利用气象常规和非常规资料、环保监测站观测资料分析了2016年11月2—5日(以下简称“2016年过程”)和2018年3月11—14日(以下简称“2018年过程”)两次重污染过程的气象条件。结果表明:2018年过程与2016年过程天气尺度高低层天气影响系统类似,地面平均风速均为1.5 m·s-1,大气水平扩散条件基本相似,边界层风场的分布及风速大小基本一致,但2018年过程低层暖气团影响高度达2 km以上且逆温强度很大,大气垂直扩散条件更不利于污染物的扩散;2018年过程PM2.5浓度较2016年过程污染最重单站峰值浓度偏低30.2%,全市平均浓度也较其略低,且未出现爆发性增长阶段,浓度积累增长平缓;2016年过程一氧化碳(CO)出现爆发性增长,4 h浓度上升接近1 000 μg·m-3,峰值浓度为3 179 μg·m-3,黑碳(BC)浓度持续较高且峰值浓度为19 939 ng·m-3;2018年过程期间CO峰值浓度较2016年过程下降24.6%,且未出现爆发性增长阶段,BC有一定日变化特征,峰值浓度为4 228 ng·m-3,远远低于2016年过程。两次重污染过程发生在基本相似的气象条件下,2018年的垂直扩散能力更为不利,但从细颗粒物和一次排放污染物对比来看,2018年过程多种污染物浓度显著下降、平均浓度明显降低,这与人为减排限排等因素密切相关。
英文摘要:
   In order to compare and analyze the factors affecting the two heavy pollution processes during the heating season in Beijing, the meteorological conditions of the two processes from 2 to 5 November 2016 and from 11 to 14 March 2018 are analyzed by using the meteorological conventional and unconventional data and the observation data of the environmental monitoring station. The results are as follows. 1) In the 2018 process and the 2016 process, the upper and lower synoptic systems are similar, both of the mean surface wind speed are around 1.5 m·s-1, the horizontal atmospheric diffusion conditions are basically similar, and the distribution of wind field in the boundary layer and the wind speed are basically the same. However, the height of the lower warm layer in the 2018 process is above 2 km, the temperature inversion intensity is high, and the atmospheric diffusion conditions are more disadvantageous for the vertical diffusion of pollutants. 2) Compared with the 2016 process, the peak PM2.5 concentration in the 2018 process is 30.2% lower, the city average concentration is also slightly lower, and there is no explosive increase phase, but slow concentration growth. 3) In the 2016 process, the carbon monoxide (CO) increases explosively, which increases by 1 000 μg·m-3 in 4 hours, and the peak concentration is 3 179 μg·m-3. The concentration of black carbon (BC) is continuously high and the peak concentration is 19 939 ng·m-3. 4) In the 2018 process, the peak concentration of CO decreases by 24.6% compared to the 2016 process and there are no explosive increase phase. There are diurnal variations for BC, the peak concentration of which is 4 228 ng·m-3, far lower than that of the 2016 process. Though the two heavy pollution processes occur under similar meteorological conditions and the vertical diffusion conditions in the 2018 process are more disadvantageous, the concentration of various pollutants decreases significantly in the 2018 process and the average concentration decreases obviously. The air quality improvement may be closely related to the reduction of pollutant emissions.
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