文章摘要
王皘,黄彬,聂高臻,王冠岚,曹越男,王慧.2018年冬季海洋天气评述[J].海洋气象学报,2019,39(2):94-105
2018年冬季海洋天气评述
Winter 2018 marine weather review
投稿时间:2019-04-14  修订日期:2019-04-16
DOI:10.19513/j.cnki.issn2096-3599.2019.02.010
中文关键词: 大气环流  大风  海雾  热带气旋  浪高  海温
英文关键词: atmospheric circulation  gale  sea fog  tropical cyclone  wave height  sea surface temperature
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2015CB452805);国家气象中心预报员专项(Y201910);中国气象局预报员专项(CMAYBY2019-141)
作者单位
王皘,黄彬,聂高臻,王冠岚,曹越男,王慧 国家气象中心北京100081 
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中文摘要:
      2018年冬季(2018年12月—2019年2月)大气环流特征为:北半球极涡呈单极型分布,主体位于北冰洋上空偏向亚欧大陆一侧。12月,亚洲中东部中高纬环流经向度较大,利于冷空气南下;2019年1—2月,环流经向度减小,中高纬地区以纬向环流为主,冷空气势力减弱,东部及南部海区海雾过程增多。我国近海出现了17次8级以上大风过程,其中冷空气大风过程有13次,冷空气和温带气旋共同影响的大风过程有2次,冷空气与热带气旋共同影响的大风过程有1次, 温带气旋大风过程有1次。我国近海浪高在2 m以上的海浪过程有14次,2 m以上大浪的天数共计64 d。冬季共有10次比较明显的海雾过程,多在北部湾附近海域,出雾时间集中于夜间至早晨。南北海域海面温度之差为21~28 ℃,海面温度整体呈下降趋势。西北太平洋和南海有3个热带气旋活动。
英文摘要:
      The main characteristics of the atmospheric circulation in the winter of 2018 (from December 2018 to February 2019) are as follows. The polar vortex was characterized by a monopole pattern, which centered over the Arctic Ocean to the Eurasian side. In December, the atmospheric circulation was featured by great meridional gradient over middle and high latitudes of the central and eastern Asia, which was favorable for the southward of the cold air. From January to February 2019, the meridional gradient decreased, middle and high latitudes gave first place to zonal circulation, the cold air was weakened, and sea fog processes in the eastern and southern sea areas were increasing. There were 17 gale processes above 8 grade over offshore areas of China, including 13 produced by cold air, two jointly by cold air and extratropical cyclone, one jointly by cold air and tropical cyclones, and one by extratropical cyclone. There were 14 rough sea wave processes above two meters and 64 days were with wave processes above two meters. Ten obvious sea fog processes occurred over offshore areas, mainly nearby Beibu Gulf from night to morning. The sea surface temperature differences between southern and northern sea areas were between 21 ℃ to 28 ℃ and sea surface temperature generally presented a declining trend. Three tropical cyclones were active over western North Pacific and the South China Sea.
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