文章摘要
邓明仔1,2,何清2,阿力木·阿巴斯2,3,金莉莉2,周成龙2,杨锐4.巴基斯坦瓜达尔港气象要素特征分析[J].海洋气象学报,2020,40(4):124-132
巴基斯坦瓜达尔港气象要素特征分析
Analysis of meteorological elements at Gwadar Port of Pakistan
投稿时间:2020-09-05  修订日期:2020-11-02
DOI:10.19513/j.cnki.issn2096-3599.2020.04.014
中文关键词: 中巴经济走廊  瓜达尔港  气象要素特征  变化特征
英文关键词: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor  Gwadar Port  characteristics of meteorological elements  characteristics of variation
基金项目:第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK010206)
作者单位
邓明仔1,2,何清2,阿力木·阿巴斯2,3,金莉莉2,周成龙2,杨锐4 (1.新疆师范大学地理科学与旅游学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830054 2.中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002 3.新疆大学资源与环境科学学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830046 4.克拉玛依市气象局新疆 克拉玛依 834000) 
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中文摘要:
   利用克拉玛依-瓜达尔友好城市气象站2018年1月1日至2019年12月31日逐日及逐小时气温、气压、降水、相对湿度、水汽压、风向风速观测资料,对瓜达尔港的气象要素特征进行分析。结果表明:1)瓜达尔港属热带沙漠气候,年平均气温为26.9 ℃,最热月为5—7月,最冷月为1月。瓜达尔港气温年较差、日较差分别为12.5 ℃和6.5 ℃,各季节间气温差异较小。其极端高温达42.7 ℃,极端低温为11.9 ℃。2)瓜达尔港年平均气压为1 009.1 hPa,气压最大值出现在12月和1月,最小值出现在7月,季节差异明显。3)瓜达尔港受制于副热带高压,常年干旱少雨,降水年季之间分布不均,差异明显。2018年年降水量为0.3 mm,集中于冬季;2019年年降水量为67.6 mm,主要集中于秋冬两季。相对湿度和水汽压年均值分别是67.3%和24.3 hPa。4)瓜达尔港年平均风速为2.4 m·s-1,白天风速大于夜晚风速。四季中春季风速偏大,夏季、秋季次之,冬季偏小。风向季节性变化明显,盛行风向除东北风外,还包括西南风。出现频率最高的是2级风,其次是1级风和3级风,6级以上大风出现频率为0。
英文摘要:
   The meteorological elements of Gwadar Port are analyzed using the observation data from the meteorological station of Karamay-Gwadar sister city from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019, including daily and hourly air temperature, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, relative humidity, water vapor pressure, wind direction, and wind speed. The results are shown below. 1) Gwadar Port has a tropical desert climate and the annual mean air temperature is 26.9 ℃. At Gwadar Port, the hottest period is from May to July and the coldest month is January. The annual and daily air temperature ranges are 12.5 ℃ and 6.5 ℃, respectively, and the air temperature difference between seasons is small. The maximum air temperature is 42.7 ℃ and the minimum is 11.9 ℃. 2) The annual mean atmospheric pressure at Gwadar Port is 1 009.1 hPa with the maximum in December and January and the minimum in July, and the seasonal differences are significant. 3) Gwadar Port is subject to subtropical high, resulting in the dry climate with little rainfall throughout the year, and the distribution of annual and seasonal precipitation is both uneven with obvious differences. The annual precipitation in 2018 is 0.3 mm, mainly in winter, while the annual precipitation in 2019 is 67.6 mm, mainly in autumn and winter. The annual mean values of relative humidity and water vapor pressure at Gwadar Port are 67.3% and 24.3 hPa. 4) Gwadar Port has an annual mean wind speed of 2.4 m·s-1, and the wind speed in the daytime is higher than that in the nighttime. In the 4 seasons, the mean wind speed is the highest in spring, followed by that in summer and autumn, and smallest is in winter. The seasonal variation of wind direction is obvious, and the prevailing wind includes southwesterly winds besides northeasterly winds. The highest frequency of wind is light breeze, followed by light air and gentle breeze, and the frequency of wind above scale 6 is zero.
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