文章摘要
张立,王玉龙,王媛.基于地基微波辐射计观测的东营地区低能见度天气指示性分析[J].海洋气象学报,2022,42(2):54-63
基于地基微波辐射计观测的东营地区低能见度天气指示性分析
An indicative analysis of low visibility weather in Dongying based on ground-based microwave radiometer observation
  
DOI:10.19513/j.cnki.issn2096-3599.2022.02.006
中文关键词: 微波辐射计  低能见度  雾和霾  逆温层温差  逆温层厚度
英文关键词: microwave radiometer  low visibility  fog and haze  temperature difference of inversion layer  thickness of inversion layer
基金项目:山东省气象局科研项目(2016sdqxm14)
作者单位
张立 山东省气象防灾减灾重点实验室,山东 济南 250031 东营市气象局,山东 东营 257000 
王玉龙 山东省气象防灾减灾重点实验室,山东 济南 250031 东营市气象局,山东 东营 257000 
王媛 山东省气象防灾减灾重点实验室,山东 济南 250031 东营市气象局,山东 东营 257000 
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中文摘要:
   针对东营市2016—2017 年出现的27 个低能见度天气过程,利用 MP -3000A 型地基微波辐射计二级数据,计算过程影响期间逐10 min 的逆温层温差、逆温层厚度和低层相对湿度等物理量。 结合空气质量和能见度变化情况,按照雾和霾、雾、降水三类天气对 27 次过程进行分类研究,总结地基微波辐射计观测的温湿度量对低能见度天气的指示意义和参考指标。结果表明:(1)雾和霾共同影响导致的低能见度天气出现在冬半年,PM2. 5浓度越大通常对应的能见度越低;逆温层温差和逆温层厚度与能见度的相关系数分别为-0. 39 和-0. 45,逆温层温差增大指示能见度降低,逆温层厚度减小指示能见度升高。低层相对湿度在 90%以上时,能见度受雾影响通常小于 2 km;低层相对湿度在80%以下时,能见度受霾影响仍然维持在5 km 以下。(2)雾影响导致的低能见度天气多出现在冬半年,与 PM2. 5浓度无关;逆温层温差和逆温层厚度与能见度的相关系数分别为-0. 54和-0. 45。在逆温层生成和破坏阶段,逆温层温差变化幅度大,对能见度的指示性更强,而逆温层厚度变化幅度相对较小,多维持在 300 ~ 400 m 之间。低层相对湿度 90%以上时能见度通常小于5 km,当低层湿层消失后能见度升高至 5 km 以上。(3)降水影响导致的低能见度天气出现在夏季,多伴随短时强降水出现,强降水时段逆温层温差达到8 ℃ 以上,逆温层厚度为 500 m;强降水结束后,逆温消失,能见度转好。
英文摘要:
   With reference to the 27 low visibility weather processes in Dongying from 2016 to 2017,thisresearch calculates the temperature difference of inversion layer,the thickness of inversion layer,andlow-level relative humidity at 10-min intervals by using the secondary data of MP-3000A ground-basedmicrowave radiometer. Combing the changes of air quality and visibility,the 27 processes are classifiedand studied according to three kinds of weather:fog and haze,fog,and precipitation. The temperatureand humidity measurements of microwave radiometer are of indicative meaning and can be an index of reference for low visibility weather. The results are as follows. (1)The low visibility weather caused bothby fog and haze appears in winter half year. Usually,the higher the PM2. 5 concentration,the lower thevisibility. The correlation coefficient between the temperature difference of inversion layer and visibility is-0. 39 and that between the thickness of inversion layer and visibility is -0. 45. The temperaturedifference increase of inversion layer indicates the decrease of visibility,while the thickness decrease ofinversion layer indicates the increase of visibility. Affected by fog,the visibility is usually less than 2 kmwhen the low-level relative humidity is higher than 90%;affected by haze,the visibility can maintainbelow 5 km even as the low-level relative humidity is lower than 80%. (2)The low visibility weathercaused by fog mostly occurs in winter half year,which has nothing to do with PM2. 5 concentration. Thecorrelation coefficient between the temperature difference of inversion layer and visibility is -0. 54 andthat between the thickness of inversion layer and visibility is -0. 45. In the formation or destruction stageof inversion layer,the temperature difference of inversion layer varies greatly and has a stronger indicationfor visibility,while the thickness of inversion layer is maintained between 300 m and 400 m and the rangeof variation is relatively small. When the low-level relative humidity is above 90%,the visibility is usuallyless than 5 km,whereas the visibility increases to be more than 5 km when the high-humidity layerdisappears. (3)The low visibility weather caused by precipitation appears in summer and it is mostlyaccompanied by short-time heavy precipitation. The temperature difference of inversion layer can reachover 8 ℃ and the thickness of inversion layer can reach 500 m during the period of heavy precipitation;the inversion disappears and the visibility increases after the heavy precipitation.
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