文章摘要
基于地基微波辐射计观测的东营地区低能见度天气指示性分析
An Indicative Analysis of Low Visibility Weather Based on Ground-based Microwave Radiometer Observation in Dongying
投稿时间:2021-07-20  修订日期:2022-02-15
DOI:
中文关键词: 微波辐射计  低能见度  雾和霾  逆温层温差  逆温层厚度
英文关键词: microwave radiometer  low visibility  fog and haze  the temperature difference of inversion layer  the thickness of inversion layer
基金项目:山东省气象局科研项目(2016sdqxm14)
作者单位邮编
张立 东营市气象局 257000
王玉龙 东营市气象局 257000
王媛 东营市气象局 257000
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中文摘要:
   针对东营市2016—2017年出现的27个低能见度天气过程,利用MP-3000A型地基微波辐射计二级数据,计算过程影响期间逐10 min的逆温层温差、逆温层厚度等物理量和低层相对湿度。结合空气质量和能见度变化情况,按照雾和霾、雾、降水三类天气对27次过程进行分类研究,总结地基微波辐射计观测的温湿度量对低能见度天气的指示意义和参考指标。结果表明:1)雾和霾共同影响导致的低能见度天气出现在冬半年,PM2.5浓度越大通常对应的能见度越低;逆温层温差和逆温层厚度与能见度的相关系数分别为-0.39和-0.45,逆温层温差增大指示能见度降低,逆温层厚度减小指示能见度升高。低层相对湿度在90%以上时,能见度受雾影响通常小于2 km;低层相对湿度在80%以下时,能见度受霾影响仍然维持在5 km以下。2)雾影响导致的低能见度天气多出现在冬半年,与PM2.5浓度无关;逆温层温差和逆温层厚度与能见度的相关系数分别为-0.54和-0.45。在逆温层生成和破坏阶段,逆温层温差变化幅度大,对能见度的指示性更强,而逆温层厚度变化幅度相对较小,多维持在300~400 m。低层相对湿度90%以上时能见度通常小于5 km,当低层湿层消失后能见度升高至5 km以上。3)降水影响导致的低能见度天气出现在夏季,多伴随短时强降水出现,强降水时段逆温层温差达到8 ℃以上,逆温层厚度为500 m;强降水结束后,逆温消失,能见度转好。
英文摘要:
   This research aims at 27 low visibility weather processes in Dongying from 2016 to 2017. It calculates the temperature difference of inversion layer and the thickness of inversion layer and low layer relative humidity during the influence which is based on the secondary data of MP-3000A ground-based microwave radiometer. Combing the changes of air quality and visibility, the 27 processes were classified according to three kinds of weather: fog and haze, fog, precipitation. The temperature and humidity measurement of microwave radiometer data can be an index of reference in low visibility weather. The results are as follows. (1) The low visibility weather caused by fog and haze appears in winter half year. Usually the concentration of PM2.5 is higher and the visibility is lower. The correlation coefficients between inversion temperature difference or inversion thickness and visibility are -0.39 and -0.45 respectively. The increase of inversion temperature difference indicates the decrease of visibility, and the decrease of inversion thickness indicates the increase of visibility. Affected by fog the visibility is usually less than 2 km when the relative humidity in the low layer is more than 90%. Affected by haze the visibility is still maintained below 5 km when the relative humidity in the low layer is less than 80%. (2) The low visibility weather caused by fog mostly occurs in winter half year. It has nothing to do with PM2.5 concentration. The correlation coefficients between inversion temperature difference or inversion thickness and visibility are -0.54 and -0.45 respectively. In the stage of inversion layer formation or destruction, the inversion temperature difference changes greatly and has a stronger indication to visibility. At this stage, the thickness of inversion layer is maintained at 300 m to 400 m and the variation range is relatively small. When the relative humidity of the lower layer is above 90%, the visibility is usually less than 5 km. And the visibility improves to more than 5 km when the high humidity layer disappears. (3) The low visibility caused by precipitation appears in summer. And it mostly accompanies by short-time heavy rainfall. The temperature difference of inversion layer can reach more than 8 ℃, and the thickness of inversion layer can reach 500 m in the period of heavy rainfall. The inversion will disappear and the visibility will improved after the heavy rainfall.
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