文章摘要
台风“利奇马”引发山东极端暴雨的多尺度特征分析
Multi-scale characteristics of extreme rainstorm caused by Typhoon Lekima in Shandong Province
投稿时间:2021-09-07  修订日期:2021-12-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 台风  低空急流  风场演变  冷空气  Q矢量散度
英文关键词: typhoon  low-level jet  evolution of wind field  cold air  -vector divergence
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
高晓梅 山东省气象防灾减灾重点实验室 250031
李峰 山东省气象局 250031
王文波 潍坊市气象局 261011
李晓利 潍坊市气象局 261011
封亚琼 潍坊市气象局 
马守强 潍坊市气象局 261011
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中文摘要:
   利用常规气象资料、NCEP FNL 1o×1o再分析、风廓线雷达、云顶亮温(TBB)及逐时自动气象站降雨量资料,对2019年8月10—13日由台风“利奇马”引起的山东极端暴雨的中尺度特征进行了分析。结果表明:1)此次台风特大暴雨主要为中低纬系统相互作用及台风倒槽本体直接影响产生。其与冷空气密切相关。冷空气主体从中高层侵入,冷暖空气交汇有利于山东大部地区稳定性降水长时间持续发生。另外一股冷空气从低层侵入暖湿气流底部,形成冷垫,使得暖湿气流在冷垫上滑行,加大降水强度。2)低空急流指数的变化提前1h预示了降水的出现及未来小时雨量的增减,其峰值出现预示着未来3h的强降雨时段,即对强降雨时段的出现和雨强大小有一定的预示性,低空急流向低空的快速扩展对应着短时强降水的开始。可以用于强降水的短时临近预报。3)Q矢量散度负值的强弱对于未来6小时的雨强大小有较好的指示意义。4)淄博西河镇出现全省最大降雨量与其朝向东北的喇叭口地形和对流层低层东北风倒灌有关。5)云顶亮温TBB场能较直观地反映强降水过程中降水的分布和强度。风廓线雷达超低空风场的变化对雨强大小和出现最大小时雨强的时段有着明显的指示意义。
英文摘要:
   Using conventional meteorological data,NCEP FNL reanalysis data(1o×1o),wind profile radar data,cloud top brightness temperature(TBB) and the hourly precipitation data of automatic meteorological stations,multi-scale characteristics of extreme rainstorm caused by Typhoon Lekima from 10 to 13 August 2019 in Shandong Province are analyzed and the results are as follows.1)The typhoon heavy rainstorm is mainly caused by the interaction of the middle and low latitude weather systems, as well as the typhoon inverted trough. Moreover, it is closely related to cold air. The main body of the cold air intrudes from the middle-to-upper levels, and the intersection of the cold and warm air is conducive to the persistent and stable precipitation in most parts of Shandong. Another cold air intrudes into the bottom of the warm-wet airflow from the lower level to form a cold underlying layer.Besides, with the warm-wet airflow gliding on this cold underlying layer,the rainfall intensity further increases.2)The change of the low-level jet index indicates the appearance of precipitation and the increase and decrease of the future hourly rainfall one hour in advance,and the peak value indicates the period of heavy rainfall in the next 3 hours.It is predictive for the appearance of the period of heavy rainfall and the intensity of precipitation.The rapid expansion of low-level jet to the lower altitude corresponds to the beginning of short-term heavy precipitation.It can be used for short-term nowcasting of heavy precipitation.3)The intensity of negative Q-vector divergence can affect the rainfall intensity in the next 6 hours.4)The largest rainfall in the province of Xihe Town in Zibo is related to the flared terrain to the northeast and the inflow of northeast wind in the lower troposphere.5)The cloud top brightness temperature TBB field can more intuitively reflect the distribution and intensity of precipitation during the rainstorm process.The variation of the wind field in ultra-low level from the wind profile radar has important indicative significance for the rainfall intensity and the period of the hourly rainfall with maximum intensity.
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