文章摘要
2021年秋季海洋天气评述
Autumn 2021 marine weather review
投稿时间:2022-01-30  修订日期:2022-02-21
DOI:
中文关键词: 大气环流  大风  热带气旋  浪高  海表温度
英文关键词: atmospheric circulation  gale  tropical cyclone  wave height  sea surface temperature
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题“台风3-7天路径、强度和结构的预报技术研究”(2017YFC1501604);中国气象局预报员专项(CMAYBY2020-157)
作者单位邮编
聂高臻 国家气象中心 100081
黄彬 国家气象中心 100081
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中文摘要:
   2021年秋季(9-11月)北半球大气环流特征为:极涡整体呈单极型,中高纬环流呈5波型分布,欧亚地区西风带环流形势季节内调整大,副热带高压偏强,西伸明显。秋季我国近海大风过程主要由冷空气、温带气旋和台风影响造成。在12次8级以上大风过程中,冷空气参与影响8次,温带气旋参与6次,台风影响4次。西北太平洋和南海共生成9个台风,其中5个台风进入我国近海,在带状副高的影响下,近海台风主要活跃于南部海域;全球其他海域共命名热带气旋18个。我国出现2m以上大浪过程的日数为74 d,约占总日数的81%,大浪过程与大风过程联系密切。秋季我国近海海温整体偏高,随着冷空气的逐渐活跃,北部海区和近岸海域海面降温迅速,近岸海温梯度加大,东海有最大海温梯度。
英文摘要:
   In the Northern Hemisphere, the main characteristics of atmospheric circulation in the autumn (from September to November) of 2020 are as follows: the polar vortex was characterized by a monopole form and five-wave mode in middle and high latitudes. In Eurasia, the circulation pattern of the westerly wind belt adjusted largely in the season. The subtropical high was strong and remarkably extended to the west. In autumn, the offshore gales in China were mainly caused by cold air, extratropical cyclones and typhoons. In the 12 gale events above Beaufort scale 8, 8 were contributed by cold air, 6 by extratropical cyclones, and 4 by typhoons. A total of 9 typhoons generated in the northwest Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea, of which 5 typhoons entered China"s offshore area. Influenced by the band-shaped subtropical high, most offshore typhoons were active in the South China Sea. A total of 18 tropical cyclones were named in basins other than western North Pacific. There are 74 days of rough sea events with wave more than 2 meters, which accounted for about 81% of the total day number of the autumn. The rough sea e events are closely related to the gales. In autumn, China"s offshore sea surface temperature was generally high. With the gradual strengthen of cold air activity, the sea surface in the northern sea area and the coastal waters cooled down rapidly. Thus the sea surface temperature gradient increased across coastal area, and the largest sea surface temperature gradient presented in the East China Sea.
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