文章摘要
2021年冬季海洋天气评述
Winter 2021 marine weather review
投稿时间:2022-03-29  修订日期:2022-04-21
DOI:
中文关键词: 大气环流  大风  热带气旋  浪高  海面温度
英文关键词: atmospheric circulation  gale  tropical cyclone  wave height  sea surface temperature
基金项目:国家重点研发计划
作者单位邮编
渠鸿宇 国家气象中心 100081
尹尽勇 国家气象中心 
王慧 国家气象中心 100081
周冠博 国家气象中心 
杨正龙 国家气象中心 100081
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中文摘要:
   2021年冬季(2021年12月-2022年2月)大气环流特征为:北半球极涡呈多极型分布,中高纬环流呈3波型分布。位势高度距平场显示,东亚中纬度地区处于正距平区,西伯利亚脊偏强,而东亚大槽较常年同期偏弱,冷空气活动偏少、强度偏强。我国近海出现了8次8级以上大风过程,其中冷空气大风过程4次,冷空气和温带气旋共同影响的大风过程3次,冷空气和台风共同影响的大风过程1次。我国近海未出现大范围的海雾过程。西北太平洋和南海共生成2个热带气旋,且均达到超强台风级,其中2122号台风“雷伊”是历史上12月份在南海海域达到超强台风级的2个台风之一,也是历史上直接袭击南沙群岛的最强台风,还是影响南海最晚的超强台风。另外,全球其他海域共生成热带气旋14个。我国近海出现2m以上大浪过程的天数有56d,约占冬季总日数的62%。冬季,我国近海海域呈明显降温趋势,北部海域的降温幅度明显大于南部海域,冬季海面温度较常年整体偏高。
英文摘要:
   The main characteristics of the atmospheric circulation in the winter (from December to February) of 2021 are as follows.The polar vortex is characterized by the multi-polor type in the Northern Hemisphere and three-wave mode in middle and high latitudes. The geopotential height anomaly field shows that the mid-latitude region of East Asia is in a positive anomaly area, the Siberian ridge is stronger, while the East Asian trough is weaker than the same period of the year, with less cold air activity and stronger intensity. There have been 8 gale processes (above 8-grade) in inshore, including 4 gale processes of cold air, three 3 processes jointly affected by cold air and extratropical cyclones, and 1 gale process jointly affected by cold air and tropical cyclone. There is no large-scale sea fog process near the coast of China. There are 2 tropical cyclones generated in the Northwest Pacific and the South China Sea, and both of them reach Super Typhoon. Among them, RAI(2122) is one of the 2 typhoons that reached Super Typhoon in the South China Sea in December. It is also the strongest tropical cyclone that hits the Nansha Islands directly in the history, and the latest Super Typhoon affecting the South China Sea. A total of 14 tropical cyclones were generated in other sea areas around the world. There are 56 days with rough sea wave processes above 2 m over offshore areas of China,accounting for about 60% of the total days of winter. In winter, China's offshore areas show an obvious cooling trend, the cooling rate in the northern sea areas is significantly higher than that in the southern sea areas, and the sea surface temperature in winter is generally higher than normal.
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