The characteristics of scopes, intensities, yearly and monthly variation in short-duration heavy rainfalls were analyzed by using the hourly precipitation data of automatic weather stations in Jinan and Licheng district and the conventional high-level and surface observation data from 2007 to 2015. The short-time heavy rainfalls were classified into six types, including shear-line, cold-front, upper-trough, cold-vortex, typhoon-periphery and non-system types, according to the synoptic environment and the influence systems. Key environmental parameters of short-time heavy rainfalls were also discussed. The results show that there was a close correlation between the scopes and intensity of short-duration heavy rainfalls, and short-duration rainfalls occurred most frequently from mid-July to mid-August. The shear-line type heavy rainfalls occurred t with large scope and strong intensity, while the cold-front type one could cause severe precipitation in July and August .Different types of short-time rainfalls could be classified by the surface dew point, 850 hPa θse, CAPE, and warm cloud thickness. Combined with the box-plots and thresholds of environment parameters in different scopes and types of precipitation, the synoptic classification could provide valuable reference for the short-duration heavy rainfall forecasting in Jinan urban district.