Based on the precipitation data of 152 automatic stations in Foshan city from 2012 to 2020, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of short-time heavy rainfall in Foshan city were studied according to the range and nature of heavy rainfall, and the main influencing systems were analyzed. Results show that the frequency of precipitation period the overall rise, different scope and nature of the short-time heavy rainfall spatio-temporal difference is bigger: local, regional, abrupt type short-time heavy rainfall occurs mainly in April to September, citywide, growth type short-term rainfall mainly in 3 to 10 months, continuous type occurred in May and June has the highest frequency; In terms of diurnal variation, the median quantile value of city-wide short-time heavy rainfall was larger than that of regional short-time heavy rainfall, and the median quantile value of local short-time heavy rainfall was the smallest. The median quantile value of continuous type short-time heavy rainfall was larger than that of abrupt type and growth type short-time heavy rainfall，the maximum short-time heavy rainfall is a growing regional process. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the frequency of local short-time heavy rainfall is higher in the southwest and north of Foshan. The frequency of city-wide short-time heavy rainfall is obviously opposite to that of local short-time heavy rainfall, and the frequency of regional short-time heavy rainfall is lower in the southwest of Foshan. The spatial distribution of the frequency of different types of short-time heavy rainfall is uniform, but the frequency of growth type short-time heavy rainfall is higher than that of abrupt type short-time heavy rainfall, and the frequency of continuous type short-time heavy rainfall is the lowest. In addition, the proportion of short-time heavy rainfall system influenced by different ranges and different properties is different, the smallest proportions were southwest vortex.