山东省地面气象观测站网评估及布局研究
DOI:
作者:
作者单位:

山东省气象工程技术中心

作者简介:

通讯作者:

中图分类号:

基金项目:

山东省气象局引导类科研项目(2021SDYD11);山东省气象局重点科研项目(2018sdqxz05)


请扫码阅读

Evaluation and layout of surface meteorological observation station network in Shandong Province
Author:
Affiliation:

Shandong Meteorological Engineering Technology Center

Fund Project:

  • 摘要
  • |
  • 图/表
  • |
  • 访问统计
  • |
  • 参考文献
  • |
  • 相似文献
  • |
  • 引证文献
  • |
  • 资源附件
  • |
  • 文章评论
    摘要:

    中国气象局综合观测司于2021年开展了观测站网布局设计工作,为做好山东省地面观测站网布局研究,依据滚动需求评估的原则,评估了山东省地面气象观测站网水平分辨率。利用山东省国家级基准、基本及常规气象观测站资料,基于空间结构函数研究了其气温、相对湿度、降水的布站方案和精度。研究结果表明:(1)在山东省4类地面气象观测站中,各要素的水平分辨率同类对比,区域气象观测站最小,应用气象观测站最大。国家气象观测站和区域气象观测站各要素水平分辨率由小到大依次为降水、气温、风、湿度、气压;国家级基准、基本及常规气象观测站各要素的水平分辨率均相同;应用气象观测站气温与湿度要素的水平分辨率大于风和降水。各地市地面观测网水平分辨率对比显示,济南、青岛、淄博、日照地面观测网探测能力较强,临沂、菏泽、潍坊较弱。(2)除全球数值天气预报和海洋应用领域外,山东省4类地面气象观测站各要素的水平分辨率相比OSCAR各应用领域突破值尚有较大的差距。其中,区域气象观测站的探测能力最好,应用气象观测站的探测能力最弱。(3)山东省国家级基准、基本及常规气象观测站的四季气温、相对湿度、降水的结构函数整体上随距离的增加而增大。不同观测要素结构函数的季节性差异明显,反映了各要素不同季节的时间变幅和空间梯度分布的不同。气温、相对湿度、降水的线段、正三角形、正方形内插标准误差与距离均呈线性关系,且随距离的增加而增大。在距离满足点值内插标准误差小于观测标准误差时,气温、相对湿度和降水均为正三角形内插精度最高。(4)山东省国家级基准、基本及常规气象观测站的气温、相对湿度和降水最佳的布站方案均为正三角形布设。其中气温、相对湿度、降水的布站精度分别为≤43.6km、≤63.4km和≤40.3km。

    Abstract:

    The Comprehensive Observation Department of China Meteorological Administration carried out the layout design of the observation station network in 2021. In order to do a good job in the research on the layout of the ground observation station network in Shandong Province, the horizontal resolution of the ground meteorological observation station network in Shandong Province were evaluated according to the principle of Rolling Review of Requirements. Based on the spatial structure function, the distribution scheme and accuracy of temperature, relative humidity and precipitation were studied by using the data of national benchmark, basic and conventional meteorological observation stations in Shandong Province. The results show that: (1) Among the four types of ground meteorological observation stations in Shandong province, the horizontal resolution of each element is smallest for regional meteorological observation stations and largest for application meteorological observation stations. The horizontal resolution of each element for national meteorological observation stations and regional meteorological observation stations, from smallest to largest, is precipitation, temperature, wind, humidity, and air pressure. The horizontal resolution of each element for national benchmark, basic, and routine meteorological observation stations is the same. The horizontal resolution of temperature and humidity elements for application meteorological observation stations is larger than that of wind and precipitation.The comparison of the horizontal resolution of the ground observation network in different cities shows that the detection ability of the ground observation network in Jinan, Qingdao, Zibo and Rizhao is strong, while that in Linyi, Heze and Weifang is weak.(2) Except for global numerical weather forecasting and marine applications, there is still a significant gap between the horizontal resolution of each element in the four types of ground meteorological observation stations in Shandong province and the breakthrough values in various application areas of OSCAR. Among them, regional meteorological observation stations have the best detection capability, while application meteorological observation stations have the weakest detection capability.(3) The structural functions of the four seasons temperature, relative humidity and precipitation of the national benchmark, basic and conventional meteorological observation stations in Shandong Province increase with the increase of distance as a whole. The seasonal difference of structure function of different observed elements is obvious, which reflects the difference of time variation and spatial gradient distribution of each element in different seasons. The linear, equilateral triangle and square interpolation standard errors of temperature, relative humidity and precipitation have linear relationship with distance, and increase with distance. When the distance meets the standard error of point value interpolation less than the standard error of observation, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation are the highest accuracy of equilateral triangle interpolation. (4) The optimum distribution scheme of air temperature, relative humidity and precipitation of national benchmark, basic and conventional meteorological observation stations in Shandong Province is triangular layout. The distribution accuracy of temperature, relative humidity and precipitation are respectively ≤43.6km, ≤63.4km and ≤40.3km.

    参考文献
    相似文献
    引证文献
引用本文
分享
文章指标
  • 点击次数:
  • 下载次数:
  • HTML阅读次数:
  • 引用次数:
文章历史
  • 收稿日期:2023-07-28
  • 最后修改日期:2023-11-17
  • 录用日期:2024-01-03
  • 在线发布日期:
  • 出版日期:

“中法海洋卫星”专刊征稿

关闭