“12·14”山东暴雪过程积雪深度特征及成因
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刘奇奇,女,硕士,工程师,主要从事中短期天气预报和技术研究,lqqi1990@163.com。

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P426.63;P458.3;P457.6

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山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2022MD095);山东省气象局科研项目(2021SDYD28);聊城市气象局科研项目(2024LCQX06)


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Characteristics and causes of snow cover of “12·14” snowstorm process in Shandong
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    摘要:

    利用常规观测、积雪深度逐时加密观测资料和欧洲中期天气预报中心(European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts,ECMWF)第五代大气再分析(ECMWF Reanalysis v5,ERA5)资料,对2023年12月13—15日山东一次极端暴雪天气过程积雪特征及其成因进行分析,得到以下结论:(1)此次过程是一次江淮气旋暴雪天气过程,具有持续时间长、降水相态复杂、基础温度低、降温幅度大和积雪深度厚等特征。(2)最大小时新增积雪深度可达8 cm;过程平均雪水比为0.7 cm·mm-1,呈“西大东小” 的分布特征。(3)有积雪的站近地面温度从开始降雪到地面产生积雪,气温和雪面温度均呈下降趋势,0 cm地温在降雪前期降温明显,积雪形成后地温不再明显变化。无积雪的站在整个降雪时段内近地面温度可分为4种情况。(4)雪水比随气温变化最明显;积雪形成之后地温对雪水比大小影响不大;当雪水比小于0.75 cm·mm-1时,雪水比随雪面温度降低而增大,当雪水比大于0.76 cm·mm-1后,雪面温度不再有明显变化。

    Abstract:

    Diagnostic analysis is performed to study the characteristics and causes of snow cover in an extreme snowstorm process over Shandong from 13 to 15 December 2023 by using routine observation data, hourly intensive observation data of snow depth, and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Reanalysis v5 (ERA5). The results are as follows. (1) This snowstorm is caused by a Jianghuai cyclone with the characteristics of long duration, complex precipitation phase, low basic temperature, large cooling range, and thick snow depth. (2) The maximum newly increased hourly snow depth is 8 cm; the average SLR (snow-to-liquid ratio) in Shandong is 0.7 cm·mm-1, exhibiting a pattern of larger snowfall amount in the western region and smaller anount in the eastern region. (3) For the meteorological stations with snow cover, the 2-m temperature and snow surface temperature show a downward trend from the beginning of snowfall to the forming of snow cover; the 0-cm ground temperature drops in the early stage of snowfall, but no longer changes significantly after the forming of snow cover. For the meteorological stations without snow cover, the characteristics of the near-surface temperature can be divided into 4 conditions during the whole snowfall period. (4) The SLR changes obviously with the 2-m temperature, while the ground temperature has little effect on the SLR after the forming of snow cover. The SLR rises as the snow surface temperature decreases when the SLR is below 0.75 cm·mm-1; however, when the SLR exceeds 0.76 cm·mm-1, the snow surface temperature no longer shows significant changes.

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刘奇奇,杨成芳,吴雪旭,王健.“12·14”山东暴雪过程积雪深度特征及成因[J].海洋气象学报,2024,(2):55-64.

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  • 收稿日期:2024-02-18
  • 最后修改日期:2024-04-21
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-06-07
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